During the financial crisis, the Federal Reserve (Fed) cut the federal funds rate from above 5% to below 1% and has not raised rates since.
As seen above, the grey shaded area represents the recent financial crisis. After reaching the zero lower bound (ZLB) in late 2008, the federal funds rate target has remained at 0.00-0.25%. With interest rates unable to go any lower due to the ZLB, the only way interest rates can move is upwards. The only question is – when will the Fed decide to raise rates?
Although I have been bearish on bond prices for some time, I have not traded on this perspective because I did not know when rates would rise. I am bearish on bond prices because bond yields and bond prices have an inverse relationship (ex. when interest rates rise, bond prices fall). As the economy improves, the moment that interest rates rise (and bond prices subsequently fall) approaches. Following the march FOMC meeting, I have come to believe that rates will rise in 2015. According to the Wall Street Journal, “If you expect lower returns from an asset class than it has provided historically, such as lower returns from bonds, then the math, and probably logic, would tell you to lighten up on bonds”. In order to lighten up on bonds, I would need to sell any bonds that I own. However, I do not own any bonds so I have considered shorting bonds instead through an exchange-traded fund (ETF) such as ProShares UltraShort Lehman 20+ Year Treasury.
Although this investment logic might be right, I have made a mistake by not having any exposure to bonds in the first place. According to the Wall Street Journal, “To be clear, the solution is not to eliminate bonds from your portfolio because they will still provide the very important diversifying benefit of cushioning your portfolio if the market should pull back”. Diversification is an important part of asset allocation that helps reduce the variance of expected returns through decreasing (and potentially eliminating) unsystematic risk from one’s portfolio. In a well-diversified portfolio, only systematic risk remains. On the one hand, systematic risk is correlated among all securities (i.e. macroeconomic news). On the other hand, unsystematic risk is uncorrelated among all securities (i.e. industry or company specific news). Traditionally, stock prices and bond prices have demonstrated a negative correlation. Adding bonds to my portfolio, which consists entirely of large cap U.S. equities, would offer me meaningful benefits through diversification. Recently, irregularities in the relationship between stock prices and bond prices (i.e. a positive correlation) due to quantitative easing might lead one to think that the benefits of diversification are lessened or eliminated. According to Burton Malkiel, “But note that even though correlations between markets have risen, they are still far from perfectly correlated, and broad diversification will still tend to reduce the volatility of a portfolio” (212). Although Malkiel was not referring to quantitative easing, he makes a useful point. As long as two securities are less than perfectly correlated (i.e. less than 1), then there will be benefits from diversification. With my portfolio consisting entirely of large cap U.S. equities, I could reduce the variance of my portfolio’s expected returns through diversification.
Despite my bearish view on bond prices, there are still ways for me to purchase bonds and gain the benefits of diversification. My bearish view on bonds is due to interest-rate risk. In this case, increasing interest rates will push down bond prices. If I wanted to still purchase bonds in order to diversify, then I could purchase bonds with short maturities. The shorter the maturity of a bond, the less it is subject to interest rate risk. This can be seen in the yield curve, which has a positive slope as maturities increase (and the credit rating remains fixed). Although the prices of short term bonds will still fall as rates rise, there will still be benefits from diversification.
As I attempt to adjust my portfolio’s asset allocation, I will consider both diversification and my bearish perspective on bonds. On the one hand, I will purchase bonds with short maturities. On the other hand, I will sell (i.e. sell short) bonds with long maturities. As a small investor, I will use ETFs in order to implement my strategy because it is more cost effective.